Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Nardong Putik

Leonardo Manecio (sometimes credited as "Manicio") aka Nardong Putik was a Filipino gangster turned folk hero. Putik was born in 1923 in Sabang, Dasmariñas, Cavite. His father was a politician of some consequence in his town who was killed by his political enemies. Putik was a driver by profession and at one time saw services as a policeman in Dasmariñas. Putik was married to Feliciana but had many common-law wives. He had one known son, Leonardo, Jr. and two known daughters, Angelita and Estrellita with his legal wife.

An amulet-wielding hoodlum from Cavite province, Putik credited his ability to survive and escape numerous ambushes and gunfights to his anting-anting (amulet). Nardong Putik's ability to elude the law and his enemies made him a legend to many people.

According to Caviteños, Putik got that name as he was known to submerge himself in mud paddies, among carabaos, using bamboo or papaya stalks as breathing tubes, whenever he had to evade a police or military dragnet. But according to some people, he can be invisible once he set foot on the mud using his anting-anting.

His mysterious powers and unexplainable abilities made him a legend, and that's the reason why I put him here.


[Taken from Internet:]

  • First capture:

  • Putik was first convicted and jailed in 1953 but escaped in July 1955 from the Constabulary stockade in Imus, Cavite where he was held as a detention prisoner.

  • Second capture:

  • Putik was re-captured on May 27, 1958 after he was cornered in a rice mill in barrio Medicion in Kawit, Cavite b He is the 31st PC Company and of the 117th PC Company who were both promoted to Captain and decorated the Gold Cross Medal, the third highest military battle award, for their daring capture. Putik surrendered to Lt. Lazo after engaging the patrol in a 45-minute gun battle.

    It was a tip from a constabulary informer, received by Col. Manuel Yan, intelligence chief of the Philippine Constabulary, at about 10 o'clock in the evening of May 26, that reported that Nardong Putik was going to spend the night with one of his common-law wives in a rice mill in Kawit, Cavite owned by Lorenzo Rodriguez. The report was immediately relayed to Col. Ricardo Papa, deputy chief of the constabulary. Ruling out a night operation, PC men were deployed by Col. Wilfredo Estrada, provincial commander of Cavite, at about 4:30 a.m. of May 27 with elements of the 117th PC Company led by and forces of the 31st PC Company led by Lt. Elias R. Lazo, Jr. At the break of dawn Lazo and Navarro were instructed to search the mill. The men searched the mill except for the office which was locked. It seemed that Manecio might not be in the mill at all. Nevertheless, the raiders refused to give up and kept their positions. After instructing the PC troops, Lt. Col. Estrada departed with former Cavite Governor Dominador Camerino for Barrio Sabang, Imus, to gather relatives of Manecio to use them to get Manecio to surrender peacefully. At 9 o'clock Estrada and his group have not returned. The troops were getting impatient. For want of anything better to do. Lts. Lazo and Navarro edged closer to the outer window of the locked office in the mill. But from where they were standing, they could only see the far side of the room over the tops of tables and steel cabinets. Lt. Lazo ordered Corporal Esmilla to see if he could from the outside pry open the window on the other side of the room. Esmilla had just inserted his bayonet through the slit to lift the latch when a shot rang out from within, confirming Manecio's presence in the mill. Esmilla hit the dirt, unhurt. Lazo hurried over to where Esmilla was and was himself greeted with another shot from Manecio. The shot also missed its target. Seeing that Manecio was in no mood to give up without a fight, Lazo and Navarro ordered their men to move back. Lazo then ordered one of his men to throw a grenade toward the window. Manecio responded with shots from his pistol. Lazo shouted to Manecio to surrender, "Nardo, mga PC ito. Sumuko ka na at hindi ka maaano!". But instead of a reply, he answered with shots. Lt. Navarro, who was covering Lt. Lazo, fired back with shots. Then Lt. Lazo yelled at Manecio again, this time identifying himself. Manecio acknowledged with "Sir, kayo pala". Manecio said he would yield only to Col. Estrada, ex-Gov. Camerino and Lt. Lazo. As Estrada and Camerino had not yet returned from Sibang, Lazo asked him to throw out whatever weapons he had out the window. This Manecio did. He threw out his pistol, holster, extra magazines for his pistol and a hand grenade which, fortunately, did not explode when it hit the ground. Lt. Lazo then shouted that he and Major Daniel Lantion, executive officer of the constabulary's intelligence division were ready to accept his surrender. But since the door was locked, the door was battered down with a log and Lazo and Navarro rushed into the room with guns ready. The woman was nowhere to be found. Manecio was whisked off to PC headquarters in Imus, Cavite and from there to Camp Crame where he was treated for his minor wounds. For all the shooting exchanges Manecio was only creased on the left forearm, above the right eyebrow and another on the abdomen. Putik credited this to his anting-anting. Putik was sentenced to jail for 182 years and two months at the national penitentiary in Muntinlupa. He escaped in October 1969 and took refuge among the poor farmers of Cavite.

  • Third capture and death:

  • As a fugitive, Putik and his men continued to instill terror in Cavite. Among the cases he was involved in were the illegal cultivation of marijuana and money extortion activities. On February 10, 1971, the National Bureau of Investigation's Narcotics division surveyed a marijuana plantation in Imus, Cavite allegedly being protected by Putik. Two NBI Agents, Rogelio Domingo and Antonio Dayao were captured, tortured, and killed by Nardong Putik and his men.[8] The incident sealed Putik's fate: Angered by the heinous crime, NBI Director Jolly Bugarin ordered all his Agents to capture dead or alive Nardo and all responsible for the death of Agents Domingo and Dayao. NBI Agent Epimaco Velasco was then installed as the new Chief of the NBI Narcotics Division. In a month's time, they were able to record the movements of Nardong Putik. Later, with enough data, they were able to track his full whereabouts confidently to enable them to launch the operation to capture him on October 10, 1971. The operation which was a joint NBI-PC-Imus police force was composed of some 20 men. Troopers from the 233rd PC Company were led by Capt. Manuel Bruan. At 5:00 in the morning, the light of the house of the mistress of Nardo went out. After a few minutes, Nardo drives his Chevrolet Impala car out to the main Manila-Cavite highway. For unknown reasons, or maybe Nardong Putik senses that he is being tailed by the Philippine Constabulary, he was able to escape the PC dragnet or checkpoint at Panamitan and Tabon, Kawit, Cavite. However, Nardong Putik did not notice a Volkswagen Kombi tailing him in the highway at the same time. The Kombi contained NBI Agents Velasco, Nasol, Utico, Bautista and others. They chased Nardo's car, and at Noveleta, Cavite, they were able to overtake the Impala and was at the right side of the car. Velasco shouted "NARDO!". He sensed the danger and immediately reached for his .45 pistol. At that moment, the NBI Agents opened fire with their revolvers, carbines, and submachine guns, peppering the car, and causing Nardo's instant death. The car lurched to the side of the highway and stopped. The Agents then immediately jumped out of their vehicle and took cover. Some Agents were still firing their guns to make sure that Nardo will not retaliate. The Impala was later hauled into NBI Headquarters in Manila, with the dead Putik inside, in full view of Director Bugarin. The news became a flash report on local television, and a top newspaper story the next day. That mission cemented the fame of Agent Velasco, who later became NBI Director in the nineties.

    The operation was reportedly pushed by Juanito Remulla who was then a Constitutional Convention delegate from Cavite. The killing of Cavite's Public Enemy No. 1 boosted Remulla’s political career having been elected to the provincial board in 1972 then as vice-governor the same year and as Cavite governor from 1979 to 1995.

    On Nardo's death, some of his men were later arrested, charged and convicted in court for murder and other offenses. [See Philippine Supreme Court Decision no. GR No. L-36613-14 entitled as PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, plaintiff-appellete, vs. RESTITUTO JIMENEZ, PEDRO NAVAL, MACARIO FRANCISCO, MAMERTO MENDOZA, and MARIO SALAZAR, defendant-appellants.

    The killing of Putik was met by mixed reactions in Cavite as he had built a reputation as a local "Robin Hood" given that his criminal exploits mainly targeted the rich.


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    Sunday, July 29, 2012

    White Lady, Black Lady, Red Lady and Brown Lady

    I am so curious about the three kinds of lady ghosts - the famous White lady, the mysterious Black Lady, the unknown Red Lady and the infamous Brown Lady. I can't believe that, there are a bunch of lady ghosts with distinguishing color each. What if they haunt in the same place, perhaps, it will be the most colorful, unique and scary place ever?

    By the way, there are three kinds of lady ghosts known:
    1) The old story of the crying lady, sometimes said to be looking for her lost children, and sometimes warns of impending death. Usually said to head for the town square or a river.

    2) The classic lady by the road, sometimes you pass her by repeatedly then disappear, and sometimes they just vanish immediately as you look back. Usually said to disappear by the bridge or a cemetery.

    3) The modern hitchhiker lady, sometimes you drop her off at a certain destination of her request, and sometimes she vanishes as you pass by a cemetery. Usually, the driver would later find out that the lady was dead either from people who knew her or from a gravestone.

    White Lady

    A White Lady is a type of female ghost reportedly seen in rural areas and associated with some local legend of tragedy. White Lady legends are found around the world. Common to many of them is the theme of losing or being betrayed by a husband or fiancé. They are often associated with an individual family line or said to be a harbinger of death similar to a banshee. I considered white ladies as the most famous of them all, because other countries are familiar with this kind of ghost. While the three, they are much unusual to others.

    In Philippines, white lady is called as Kaperosa, but most Filipinos named this ghost in English. Kaperosa is a female spirit with no face or a spirit covered in blood which has been reportedly seen in empty buildings, near forests, on roads (especially at night) and on cliffs.


    In United Kingdom, Old Mill Hotel is said to be haunted by the white lady from long ago. A lady was engaged to a man and was due to be married in the old mill hotel. On their wedding day, the lady's fiance never arrived to the wedding, as he was beaten
    up by another man who also wanted the lady. The lady was upset and angry, so she ran to the Nine arches where the trains run past. She sat on the edge crying and forlorn. A train rushed passed her and she jumped in fright, falling to the ground dead. For the rest of her fiance's life, the white lady (the lady who died in her white wedding dress) haunted him for apparently not loving her. Her grave is near the old mill hotel and she is said to be seen sitting under a beautiful tree.

    The Castle Huntly, Scotland, is said to be haunted by a young woman dressed in flowing white robes. There are various stories concerning her history, one of which is that she was a daughter of the Lyon family who occupied the castle in the 17th century. When her affair with a manservant was discovered she was banished to a tower on the battlements. Unable to endure her suffering, she threw herself to her death from the tower. The ghost of the White Lady has been seen a number of times over the years, often on the grounds surrounding the castle. She has also been seen in the room in which she was imprisoned.

    Muncaster Castle in the county of Cumbria is reputed to be one of England's most haunted houses. The vengeful ghost in white of Mary Bragg, a foul-mouthed local girl who was murdered by being hanged from the Main Gate by drunken youths in the 19th century after they had kidnapped her for a joke, is also referred to as the white lady. The white lady has been sighted in Chadkirk, Manchester going across the canal on a banana boat.

    Roughwood Nature Reserve in the Black Country also has had a high number of paranormal incidents, including sightings of a woman in a white dress, drenched in ichor from the lake where it is rumored her body was abandoned. Local myths suggest this is the spirit of Pauline Kelly, who with her daughter Evelyn disappeared in the mid-19th century. The local community has a Halloween tradition involving wearing white dresses and speaking the mocking rhyme: "White Lady, White Lady, I'm the one who killed your baby."

    In United States, a local legend tells of the White Lady of Acra, the ghost of a woman who died on her way home from her wedding night in the 19th century. Although no one has come into contact with her, many older people claim to have seen her especially on the abandoned dirt road near the Parchments and Castle Hill which she is rumored to haunt.

    Another legend tells of the White Lady jumping off the Portchester Castle while she was carrying a child she didn't want. Her spirit is said to haunt the castle to this day.

    In Germany, a white woman was first reported to be seen in the Berliner Schloss in 1625 and sightings have been reported up until 1790.

    In the Philippines, the white lady is reportedly seen in Balete Drive of Quezon City and in Loakan Road of Baguio City. Both dwell in trees and haunts at roads, where, other said, they died from an accident or from being raped and was murdered. There are many ghost stories that depict this kind of ghost in the Philippines, with different reasons why they haunt the place, and how they became one.

    Black Lady

    Should I consider the black lady a banshee too? Actually, I don't know what they are. But I think yes, the only difference between the white and black ladies are the dress they wear as a ghost. They are sometimes associated with devils because they were black. Some says, they are more dangerous than the white lady. How good white ladies are, is equaled by black ladies for being wicked. They appear similar to how the white ladies appear in front of you. Their origin is almost the same as that of the white one. They may be harmful and vengeful. There are only few information or records about this creature.


    In Lincolnshire, England, the black lady of Bradley Woods is a ghost which reportedly haunts the woods near the village of Bradley. Alleged eyewitnesses have described her as being young and pretty, around 5'6" tall, dressed in a flowing black cloak and a black hood that obscures her hair but reveals her mournful, pale, tear-soaked face. According to the legend she has never harmed anyone and has only ever proved to be a pitiful, if unnerving sight.

    The story is known to have been told for many generations. It was once used by parents to frighten children; this appears to have been a common practice among parents in the area, and children were warned that if they were not safely in bed by a certain time "the black lady will get you!".

    One theory that has been put forward is that the Black Lady is the ghost of a nun. She appears dressed in black and at nearby Nunsthorpe (now an area of Grimsby) where a convent existed until the Reformation. This theory gives no reason as to why the Black Lady should have moved from Nunsthorpe to Bradley, 2 miles (3.2 km) away. Also, though she may be dressed in black, few if any eyewitnesses have described her appearance as matching that of a nun.

    Another possible explanation is that she is a spinster who at one time lived a life of isolation in her cottage in the woods far enough away from the village. If village children had come across a woman living on her own in the woods, who became angry when her privacy and solitude was breached, then imaginary tales of witchcraft could have exaggerated the legend.

    Neither of these theories ties in with the folklore.

    In Fort Warren, Georges Island, Massachusetts, there was a famous legend about a lady in black. Here's the story: (by Edward Rowe Snow)
    ... During the War between the States, hundreds of prisoners were captured by General Burnside at Roanoke Island. Among the group incarcerated at Fort Warren in the Corridor of Dungeons was a young lieutenant who had been married only a few weeks before. He succeeded in getting a message to his young wife by the underground railroad, giving complete directions as to where he was and how she could reach him. Being very much in love, she obtained passage on a small sloop, and landed in Hull a few weeks later. She quickly located the home of a Southerner in that town and was fitted out with a pistol and dressed in men's clothing. Choosing a dark, rainy night, the lady rowed across Nantasket Road and finally landed on the beach at Georges Island. Slipping noiselessly by the sentries, she reached the ditch under the Corridor of Dungeons. After giving a prearranged signal, she was hoisted up to the carronade embrasure and pulled through the opening. As soon as husband and wife had exchanged greetings, they made plans for the future. The prisoners decided to dig their way out of the dungeon into the parade ground and set to work. Unfortunately for their plans, a slight miscalculation brought their tunnel with hearing of Northern soldiers stationed on the other side of the wall.

    The commanding officer, Colonel Dimick, was notified and the whole scheme was quickly exposed. The brave little woman, when cornered, attempted to fire at the Colonel, but the gun was of the old-fashioned pepper box type and exploded, killing her husband. Colonel Dimick had no alternative but to sentence her to hang as a spy. She made one last request: that she be hanged in women's clothing. After a search of the fort, some robes were found which had been worn by one of the soldiers during an entertainment, and the plucky girl went to her death wearing these robes. At various times through the years, the Ghost of the Lady in Black has returned to haunt the men quartered at the fort.

    Once, three soldiers were walking under the great arched sallyport at the entrance to the fort, and there before them, in the fresh snow, were five impressions of a girl's shoe leading nowhere and coming from nowhere. Ten years before World War II, a certain sergeant from Fort Banks was climbing to the top of the ladder which leads to the Corridor of Dungeons when he heard a voice warning him, saying: "Don't come in here!" Needless to say, he did not venture further.

    There actually are on record court-martial cases of men who have shot at ghost-like figures while on sentry duty, and one poor man deserted his post, claiming he had been chased by the lady of the black robes. For many years the traditional poker game was enjoyed in the old ordnance storeroom, and at ten o'clock one night a stone was rolled the entire length of the storeroom. As all the men on the island were playing poker, no explanation could be found. When the same thing happened the next time that the men played poker in the evening, the group at the card table decreased appreciably.

    By the end of the month the ordnance storeroom was deserted, and since that time, if any of the enlisted men wished to indulge in that pastime, they chose another part of the island. The ghost of the "Lady in Black" was, of course, blamed for the trouble.
    In the Philippines, there was this news about a 10-year-old child who saw a black lady. Here is the whole story: (by Ria Mae Y. Booc/FPL)
    Black ghost hounds pupil in Dalaguete?

    CEBU, Philippines - The appearance of a “black lady” to a 10-year-old pupil in the middle of her discussion prompted grade four teacher Zita Hayo of Dalaguete Elementary School to suspend her class yesterday.

    The pupils in the grade four class were terrified when one of their female classmates suddenly burst into tears because of fear. The pupil told her teacher that she is seeing a “black lady” in the classroom. She described it having black eyes with blood dripping from her mouth.

    Hayo said she first noticed the unusual behavior of the pupil last Monday. According to her, she was having her class discussion in the morning when the pupil suddenly cried without any reason.

    When she asked the child what was wrong the latter told her that a “black lady” appeared before her. Hayo referred the incident to their principal, Cecelia Cartilla.

    They referred the child to healing minister Vioh Amamampang who performed a prayer over on the child. They also called the child’s parents who brought her to the district hospital. Upon examination, the doctors found her negative of any disease.

    However, the same incident occurred yesterday morning prompting the principal to investigate the child. She said the pupil is not insane, in fact, she was doing well in her class.

    Cartilla said the pupil told her that the “black lady” first appeared in her dreams and introduced herself as Nunita Cabal.

    Cabal allegedly told the child that she died long ago and that she needs prayers. The “black lady” asked the child to offer prayers for her because she has no families to pray for her.

    The pupil was allegedly instructed to offer five masses for her within five Sundays.

    Upon hearing the child’s story, Cartilla said she immediately asked her staff to offer a prayer for the soul of Cabal. However, the pupil screamed and went wild because she is allegedly seeing different faces telling her that Cabal is not worthy of prayers.

    This prompted Cartilla to send the pupil to Santo Rosario Parish in Cebu City for spiritual healing. – (FREEMAN)

    Red Lady

    Like other two ladies above, this ghost is wearing a robe or a gown in red from where she got her name as Red Lady. In stories I had read, the author said that this ghost is the most dangerous of the three, dangerous than the Black lady. It can give you goosebumps more that what you feel to black ladies. They said, red ladies died because of sexual abuses.


    There was a real ghost story that tells about a lady in red in University of Santo Thomas in the Philippines. According to the story, the lady in red was published in a news
    paper of the said university for their All-Saint's-Day edition. The ghost haunts in the main campus, which was the oldest building, in the comfort room. The shocking thing about her is, she wears high heels. They would hear the rhythmic tock-tocking of her high-heeled shoes in the hallway, but mostly in the lady's powder room.
    (by Triglyceride on PEX)

    ... the story goes there was this student who went in there and as she was relieving herself she heard someone walk in the restroom...tok tok tok tok the sound was unmistakable ...high heeled shoes....so there she was relieving herself when all of a sudden someone started pounding on the door of her bathroom stall. The door doesn't go all the way to the floor so you know...you could see the feet of whoever's in front of the door..well she got annoyed at how rude this person was so she said sandali lang! at the same time her eyes automatically drifted down at the bottom of the floor.....

    she didn't see any pair of feet....and yet the pounding continued...

    she looked above the door and that was the time she saw the lady in red angrily looking down at her...
    In Montgomery, Alabama, there was this Red Lady in Huntingdon College. It is a ghost said to haunt the former Pratt Hall dormitory at Huntingdon College in Montgomery, Alabama. Her story is told in Huntingdon alumnus Kathryn Tucker Windham's book 13 Alabama Ghosts and Jeffrey.

    According to Windham and historian Daniel Barefoot, there have actually been two ghosts alleged to have haunted Huntingdon College. The first appeared in the late nineteenth century, while the college was still located in the town of Tuskegee, Alabama. She was described as a young woman wearing a scarlet dress and carrying a scarlet parasol who walked wordlessly up and down the halls of a women's dormitory late one night, bathed in a red glow. This apparition, according to Windham, ultimately left the residence hall and disappeared from view as she passed through a gateway outside. The alleged identity or origin of this wraith has never been determined, and she was apparently never seen again. [Click Here for other information]

    Brown Lady

    Another kind of colored ghost. Maybe the brown lady is the rarest of the four. I don't know about this creature, I had just stumbled upon this. Actually, I only know three colored lady ghost, not four. I can't believe that there's another one.


    The Brown Lady of Raynham Hall is a ghost which reportedly haunts Raynham Hall in Norfolk. It became one of the most famous hauntings in Great Britain when the image of the 'Brown Lady' was captured by photographers from Country Life magazine who were photographing the staircase in 1936, where it would become one of the most famous paranormal photographs of all time. The "Brown Lady" is so named because of the brown brocade dress it is claimed she wears.

    This black-and-white picture depicted here (left) is thought to be that of Lady Dorothy Townshend, wife of Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount of Raynham, residents of Raynham Hall in Norfolk, England in the early 1700s.

    According to legend, the "Brown Lady of Raynham Hall" is the ghost of Lady Dorothy Walpole (1686-1726), the sister of Robert Walpole, generally regarded as the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She was the second wife of Charles Townshend, who was notorious for his violent temper. The story says that when Townshend discovered that his wife had committed adultery with Lord Wharton he punished her by locking her in her rooms in the family home, Raynham Hall. According to Mary Wortley Montagu, Dorothy was in fact entrapped by the Countess of Wharton. She invited Dorothy over to stay for a few days knowing that her husband would never allow her to leave it, not even to see her children. She remained at Raynham Hall until her death in 1726 from smallpox. [Click Here for more about this.]


    Questions of Filipinos:
    Where did the belief of Filipinos for White Ladies (and also the other colors) originated?
    So here's the answer:
    Long time ago, before the time of Spanish colonialism, ancient Filipinos believe that every living and non-living things possess Kaluluwa (Soul) - Animism. These beings are actually called Diwata. They were usually depicted wearing white clothes and live within every trees, plants, etc. Filipinos believe, at that time, that they were gentle and helpful to people, but as time pass by, it changed. Suddenly, this creatures became white ladies by the influence of Americans.

    Aside of that, the colors that vary from one lady to another symbolizes what their attitude is. Filipinos believe that, white symbolizes good and kind and black were wicked.


    Aside of the four ladies above, there are more:
  • The Blue Lady is the ghost of a woman reportedly seen in and around the Moss Beach Distillery Cafe in Moss Beach, California; she is so-named because she usually dressed all in blue. She is said to originate from the Prohibition era.[1]
  • The Pink Lady is the unknown woman who visit the Grove Park Inn in Ashevile during the 1920's, and was a guest of room 545. Dressed in a long, pink, flowing gown, the woman fell to her death over the stone wall from the second floor. Though her body was removed, it seems that her spirit has lingered behind.[2]
  • The Gray Ladies are the ghosts of women who died violently for the sake of love or through the heartless actions of a family member. They are tragic figures and many ghosts fit this description. They are the lonely women ghosts who wandering the world, lost. There are grey lady stories throughout the world and they are as prolific as any ghost story, but my favorite Gray lady is a girl named Kate.[3]
  • The Green Lady of Caerphilly Castle. Old local legends suggested that the green lady was a very abnormal looking old crooked hag character. In fact The Green Lady was a french lady called Alice who apparently died after her lover was executed. She was basicalled having an affair, She was married to the dude living in the castle at the time and she went to confess her sins to a local monk who told the dude she was married to who owned the castle, he had the lover killed the monk killed and alice died of a broken heart. She is very occasionally seen by many people, Also the castle famous leaning tower smells of lavendar perfurme now and again but no wild lavendar grows in the area. [4]

  • That's all the color I found in Internet. Most of them died because of love, from unfinished wedding to deserted by a partner. Thus, being heart-broken, there arise a ghost. In addition to that, all the given ladies above, except the Gray (grey) Ladies, were so-called because of the color of gown, robe or any kind of dress they wear when they died or how they appear to human as their color.

    I also wanted to research male ghosts in colors. Do you think I can find one?

    If you know another colored lady or gentleman ghost, e-mail me at philurbanlegends@ymail.com or message me at http://www.facebook.com/PhilippineUrbanLegends for full data and story about them.

    Visit also this site:
  • [1] http://seeker7.hubpages.com/hub/The-Colour-of-Ghosts
  • [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ghosts
  • [3] https://sites.google.com/site/paranormalirgsite/home/paranormal-dictionary/j---k---l

  • Sources:
    [Picture from:]
  • http://www.strangehistory.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/white-woman-ghosts.jpg
  • http://calling.wikia.com/wiki/Girl_in_Red
  • http://theresashauntedhistoryofthetri-state.blogspot.com/2011/01/guyandottes-lady-in-black.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brown_lady.jpg
  • Saturday, July 28, 2012

    Agapito Flores


    [Taken from a Book:]

    Agapito Flores: Filipino Inventor
    by Nila B. Cay

    Edison died leaving the electric bulb, among other things, to light the world. But the light was a warm yellow glow and to produce a white light, a consumer had to buy a high-watt bulb and use more electricity.

    This set a poor man from Tondo thinking. He thought of devising another bulb that could produce a bright light that was easy on the eyes and on the pocket. He brought a tube-like bulb to show his president. President Manuel L. Quezon listened to him and examined his invention. The man plugged it on, and it radiated a blush-white light that was cool to the eyes but as bright as day.

    President Quezon was impressed and more was his guest who an official from the French government. He had been observing the demonstration all along. He sent the electrician to Paris where he was given a patent. Nobody could imitate his invention without the Filipino inventor's permission.

    The General Electric company in the United States heard of this. It lost no time buying the poor man's invention. It reproduced the bulb in millions and sold them all over the world. This is the popular fluorescent bulb which gives off a bright light with minimum electric consumption.

    That man was Agapito Flores, the thrifty, industrious, inventive man from Tondo who knew what he wanted and, undeterred, got it.

    --- Reading Journey 5


    First, let's talk about the life of Agapito Flores:

    Agapito Flores was born in Guiguinto, Bulacan, Philippines on September 28, 1897. Because of poverty, he did not finish his high school. He worked as an apprentice in a machine shop, and later moved to Tondo, Manila. He took an Electric Course from a vocational school. After a couple of months, he applied for a job.

    He conducted experiments about light and its common uses, typically at night. He wanted to discover a type of light that shines like the sun.

    It has been reported that Agapito Flores received a French patent for a fluorescent bulb and that the General Electric Company bought Flores' patent rights and manufactured and sold his fluorescent bulb (making millions from it).

    Agapito Flores died on 1943.

    The above story is real - it did happened, but the main case why I enlisted him here is the story that he invented the fluorescent light which is not true. Below are the more predate inventors of the fluorescent light.

  • In 1857, the French physicist Alexandre E. Becquerel who had investigated the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence, theorized about the building of fluorescent tubes similar to those made today.

  • American, Peter Cooper Hewitt (1861-1921) patented (U.S. patent 889,692) the first mercury vapor lamp in 1901. The low pressure mercury arc lamp of Peter Cooper Hewitt is the very first prototype of today's modern fluorescent lights.

  • Edmund Germer (1901 - 1987) who invented a high pressure vapor lamp, also invented an improved fluorescent lamp. In 1927, Edmund Germer co-patented an experimental fluorescent lamp with Friedrich Meyer and Hans Spanner.

  • Source:
    Lilia B. Fontanilla. Values Education Living a Valuable Life. St. Augustine Publication, Inc. 2005

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    Friday, July 20, 2012

    Jeane Dixon's Prophecy to the Philippines

    Jeane L. Dixon was one of the best-known American astrologers and psychics of the 20th century, due to her syndicated newspaper astrology column, some well-publicized predictions, and a best-selling biography. She once predicted the assassination of a US President on his second term, but the president she was talking about is not named. She said, assassinated or die in office though not necessarily in his first term.. It was written in Parade Magazine on May 13, 1956. Then, Pres. John F. Kennedy was killed, and her forecast was fulfilled.[1]

    That's a short introduction about Jeane Dixon before we proceed to the main subject.


    [Taken from Internet:]

    With a little over 2 weeks 2 go b4 d may elections,
    remember wat d famous psychic Jean Dixon predctd in
    Nov. of 1983 just after d assassination of Ninoy Aquino..
    She said " d widow of Sen. Aquino will become president.
    And even one of his children will someday become president
    bt will be cheated by a woman & a very rich man..
    which will usher n d most corrupt era in Philippine history."[2]
    With a little over two (2) weeks to go before the May elections,
    remember what the famous psychic Jean Dixon predicted in
    November of 1983 just after the assassination of Ninoy Aquino..
    She said "The widow of Sen. Aquino (Ninoy) will become president.
    And even one of his children will someday become president.
    but will be cheated by a woman & a very rich man..
    which will usher in the most corrupt era in Philippine History."
    Some other version tells...
    and even one of his children will someday try to run for president but will be defeated by his own relative
    instead saying only one of his children will be president.

    The above article was a copy of a text message circulating in public. Actually, I have not received the message yet. When I first read this, I became curious if it was actually true or not, or if Jeane Dixon really predicted it. Well, the answer to my question probably affirmative, Jeane Dixon may had forecast it. I was unsure to my conclusion, because I can't find a reliable source that she actually had predicted it. I was born almost 15 years after the time of Marcos-Aquino conflict. So I definitely don't know her and her prophecies.

    Anyway, some of her predictions came true:
  • The widow of Sen. Aquino (Ninoy) will become president.
    And it happened! Corazon Aquino became the 11th president of the Republic of the Philippines. From February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992.

  • And even one of his children will someday become president.
    And it happened again! Benigno Aquino III, their only son, became the 15th president.

  • But will be defeated by his own relative
    It was told in other version, but it was not realized.
  • The other predictions are still pending to happen.
    ...but will be cheated by a woman & a very rich man.... which will usher in the most corrupt era in Philippine History.
    On that quote, many Filipinos were feared, especially her other predictions came true. However, there are still more people hopeful that everything will be okay on his (PNoy) term. Even though, I don't fully believe on it, I still cannot conclude it's impossibility. Only time can tell.

    On the other hand, I am still searching for updates on what is going on to PNoy - if everything are happening according to her prophecy.

    Possibilities for fulfillment

    According to a wordpress.com account, the betraying woman might be the previous president of the Philippines before PNoy - Cong. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo of the second district of Pampanga. And the very rich man might be Sen. Manny Villar. He tried to run to presidency but was lost against Noynoy Aquino.[3] He posted this last May 11, 2010, but his speculation still not come true. So the two probably are not the persons Dixon was talking about. Well, there's still one year of Villar's term in the senate.

    Based on some speculation, the woman was Shalani Soledad, Dinky Soliman, and Miriam Santiago; and the man is a Cojuanco - Noynoy's relative in her maternal side.

    By the way, before I end this article. Jeane Dixon once predicted the World War III which would had started 1958 over some offshore Chinese Islands, that labor leader Walter Reuther would run for president in 1964, and that the Russians would land the first man on the moon. But all had not happened. So we still have a hope that the last prophecy will not be realized. (I wish!)

    First Update

    I will update this once everything had passed or if everything was fulfilled. That's what I said last July 20, 2012 (Friday). It's been a year and a half since the last time I posted this article here. Now, I think, its time for the first update.

    One of our readers, opened a possibility that the cheating woman and the very rich man (or could be 'men') are those personalities involved in the PDAF Scam.

    PDAF (Priority Development Assistance Fund; or commonly known as Pork Barrel) is a discretionary fund in the Philippines available to legislators to support and/or finance a small-scale infrastructure and community project they wanted to help.

    Janet Lim-Napoles (or Janet "Jenny" Luy Lim-Napoles) is a businesswoman who was the alleged mastermind of the PDAF Scam.

    Back in 1993, she was said to invest in a supposed shipyard in Cebu, which promises a 5% interest on all investments. But according to Col. Ariel Querubin, the money was not invested in the said shipyard. It was actually invested in someone else, pocketing the interest. Even though the investment was recovered, Querubin claimed that the death of his wife was caused of it.[4]

    In 2001, she and her husband, Jaime G. Napoles, were associated in the acquisition of Php 3.8 Million worth of substandard Kevlar helmets by the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Then, the Sandiganbayan charged them with graft and malversation. But she was acquited because of lack of evidence.[4]

    Just this year, her JLN Corporation was discovered to pay a significantly less tax since 2009. It is less than that of the average school teacher tax. AND the PDAF Scam rose with her name as the main character of the story.[4]

    PDAF Scam (or Pork Barrel Scam) is the most popular political scandal for the year 2013. Janet Lim-Napoles and some Legislators (Senators and Representatives) are involved in the said drama. I don't really know how to start discussing the story of the PDAF Scam. But the heart of the said scam focuses on the ghost projects created by the leading lady and funded through the use of PDAF of the legislators.

    According to testimony provided by Benhur Luy's brother, Arthur, funds would be processed through fake foundations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) established under the wing of the JLN Group of Companies, the holding company of Janet Lim-Napoles, with Napoles' employees—even a nanny—named as incorporators or directors. Each foundation or NGO served as an official recipient of a particular legislator's PDAF funds, and each organization had a number of bank accounts where PDAF funds would be deposited for the implementation of these projects.[5]

    To make the story short, the JLN Group of Companies offered a commission of 10-15% against funds released to local government units and recipient agencies of PDAF funds, while a legislator would receive a commission of between 40-50% against the total value of his/her PDAF.[5]

    28 Legislators are believed to be involved in the said scam - 5 from senators and 23 from representatives. Of those Senators, 3 became the leading men, and these men are very rich men (not 'man').

    The scam resulted to the Million People March which aims to call for abolition of Priority Development Assistance Fund. It was so-called because the number of people who joined aggregately in the rally is literally a million. Filipinos were united in the third time for a change in the government (after EDSA 1 and EDSA 2). The call for unity circulated in Social Networking Sites (particularly Facebook and Twitter). The march was held on August 26, 2013 at Luneta Park in Manila, as well as other cities nationwide and overseas.

    Well, I can consider that this is the most corrupt era in the history of the Philippines, as of now.

    Last updated: November 18, 2013
    (Posted: November 25, 2013)

    Image Source:

    Wednesday, July 18, 2012

    The Curse of the Old Lady


    [Taken from Internet: (August 02, 2008)]

    MAY 10, 1976
    Nasagasaan ang isang matandang babae, pero tinakbuhan ng nakasagasa. Bago mamatay ang matanda sinabi nya "alaw ina magnat" isang itim na dasal...
    Sa lahat ng nakabasa nito magpapakita ang matanda ng 3 beses ng madaling araw!
    Tatabi sayo duguan at humihingi ng tulong!
    Nangyari ito kay JENIFFER ISIDRO ng Guimba, Nueve Ecija dahil hindi naipasa sa 17 tao at namatay sya. 17 ang bilang ng taong nakakita sa insidente pero hindi tumulong..
    Sori kelangan ko ipasa kasi ayon sa research ko totoo ito! Naipalabas na ito sa NGINIG..

    [Taken from a Blog: (November 03, 2009)]

    MAY 10, 1976
    Nsgasaan ang 1 mtndng bbae pero tinkbuhan ng nksgsa. Bgo nmtay ang mtnda tinuran nia ito, “alaw ina magnat”, 1ng itim n dsal.S lht ng nkbsa ni2 mgppktng mtnda ng 3x ng mdling araw!Ta2bi sau,duguan,humihingi ng 2long!Nngyari i2 ky MARKY CIELO ng STARSTRUCK dhil d nia naipsa sa 17tao nmty xa arw n dec.7,2008,11:15 d sya ngicng.Sori kilngn q ipsa kc ay0n sa rsearch 220 i2!Niplabas na ito s NGINIG..

    [Taken from a Social Networking site: (December 22, 2010)]

    May 10, 1976
    Nasagasaan ang 1 matandang babae, pero tinakbuhan ng nakasagasa. Bago mamatay ang matanda, tinuran niya ang "alaw ina magnat", isang itim na dasal.
    Sa lahat ng nakakabasa nito. :magpapakita ang matanda ng 3 beses ng madaling araw. Tatabi sayo, duguan at humihingi ng tulong.. nangyari ito kay Marky Cielo ng starstruck dahil hindi niya naipasa sa 20 tao, namatay siya sa araw na December 07, 2008 11:15 pero hindi nagising. Sorry, kailangan ipasa kasi ayon sa research totoo ito. Naipalabas na ito sa Nginig..
    Pnasa lang toh skenpkipasa s iba .. BWAL IBALIK ! ipasa mo sa lhat ng ONLINE.


    [English Translation:]

    May 10, 1976
    There was once an old lady bumped by a vehicle, but the one who did it fled away. Before she died, she uttered these words, “alaw ina magnat”, an incantation of some dark spell.
    To all persons who have read this message will be visited by this old lady three times at dawn. She will lie beside you, covered with blood, begging for help.
    [August 02, 2008]
    This happened to Jeniffer Isidro of Guimba, Nueva Ecija, because she didn't pass this to 17 people, and she died. 17 people saw her, but no one helped.

    [November 03, 2009 and December 22, 2010]
    This is what happened to Marky Cielo of Starstruck because he failed to pass this to 17 (latest, 20) people. He was killed last December 7, 2008, 11:15, haven’t waken up.
    Sorry, I have to pass this because according to some researches, this is real. This had been aired in NGINIG.. NO RESENDING BACK! Pass this to all online friends.

    Actually, I recieved this kind of message when I was still 16 years old. It scared me! But what can I do? I don't have load to send it to others. I had read the message, so I have no choice but to wait her appear suddenly in front of me. And yet, nothing happened.

    The above chain messages depict an old lady which was hit by a vehicle. All of the given stories above didn't mention what kind of vehicle it was. (On the version I recieved, it was a car.) However they tell the similar date when the event happened - May 10, 1976. On the other hand, the person who was killed differs depending in time. The first message which was made August 02, 2008, the time when Marky Cielo was still alive, Jeniffer Isidro of Guimba, Nueva Ecija was told there. Then, on the second story, November 03, 2009, almost nine months after the young actor died, even the reason of his death is still unknown, became an example in the chain message. It is obvious that this was just invented for some reason, like the other chain messages I had included here in my blog.

    According to thekristianenigma.blogspot.com, he searched the meaning of the spell. He said, it was not of Greek, Latin nor Egyptian origin, but definitely from Filipino. It was actually an anagram. An anagram is a word or sentences made by transposing the letters of another. Let's see:
    ALAW INA MAGNAT (the spell in the chain messages)

    ALAWINAMAGNAT (spaces were deducted)

    TANGAMANIWALA (reversed)

    TANGA MANIWALA (space was added)

  • TANGA a Filipino word for idiot; stupid
  • MANIWALA it means to believe

  • In other words, the spell means Believers are stupid.
    Other noticeable information in the message:
  • Dawn
    Marky Cielo died 11:15, whether it was at morning or evening, still it is not dawn. Therefore, even in that information, it became very incredible. Actually, I still don't know who was Jeniffer Isidro in the oldest version. If she died, then the reason might not be the message itself. I think it was an accident who killed her. There was 17 witnesses on her death which ignored her while dying, as written above. So what actually had happened? No one knows.

  • NGINIG (actually Nginiig)
    It was a horror oriented show aired in the Philippines by ABS-CBN. They feature ghost stories based on real-life experiences of other people. Well, I don't actually know if it was featured there.

  • The old lady will visit you at dawn three times.
    All of the messages hadn't mentioned that whoever will be visited will die. However, Jeniffer Isidro and Marky Cielo died.
  • Based on some rumours, the Telecom Companies started this messages at the time when there was no unlimited text available yet. So for them to earn more money and have more customers, they need to do this. Well, it's another story though.

    Saturday, July 14, 2012

    Gil Pérez

    At first, I was doubtful to its genuineness. Well, maybe because the first time I found this, only one website tells his life. Others, were just duplicates of the same story. I was also finding some hard proofs, though I found nothing, however many claimed it true. I also notice some wrong details in the story of the site I first found.

    Anyway, let's document first the facts in his said story one by one.


    [Taken from Internet:[1]]

    Gil Pérez was a Spanish soldier of the Filipino Guardia Civil who allegedly suddenly appeared in the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City (more than 9,000 nautical miles from Manila, across the Pacific) on October 24, 1593. He was wearing the uniform of the guards of Palacio Del Gobernador in the Philippines, and claimed he had no idea how he had arrived in Mexico.

    Perez claimed that moments before finding himself in Mexico he had been on sentry duty in Manila at the governor’s palace. He admitted that while he was aware that he was no longer in the Philippines, he had no idea where he was or how he had gotten there. He said that moments before he arrived there, His Excellency the Governor of the Philippines, Gomez Perez Dasmariñas had been killed by Chinese pirates. He explained that after long hours of duty in Manila, he felt faint, leaned against a wall and closed his eyes; he said he opened his eyes a second later to find himself somewhere different.

    When it was explained to him that he was now in Mexico City, Perez refused to believe it saying that he had received his orders on the morning of October 23 in Manila and that it was therefore impossible for him to be in Mexico City on the evening of the 24th. The authorities placed Perez in jail as a deserter and for the possibility that he may have been in the service of Satan. The Most Holy Tribunal of the Inquisition questioned the soldier, but all he could say in his defense was that he had travelled from Manila to Mexico “in less time than it takes a cock to crow”.

    Two months later, news from the Philippines arrived by Manila Galleon, confirming the fact of the literal axing on October 23 of Dasmariñas in a mutiny of Chinese rowers, as well as other points of the mysterious soldier’s fantastic story. Witnesses confirmed that Gil Perez had indeed been on duty in Manila just before arriving in Mexico. Furthermore, one of the passengers on the ship recognized Perez and swore that he had seen him in the Philippines on October 23. Gil Perez eventually returned to the Philippines and took up his former position as a palace guard, living thenceforth an apparently uneventful life.

    This is the first article I found which made me believed Gil Perez's story isn't real.

    Facts of the Case


    In some dictionary, teleportation is simply defined as moving instantly from one place to another. It came from a Greek word tele which means far away or distant, and a Latin word portare which means to carry.[2]

    In the internet, teleportation is the theoritical transfer of matter from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them. Charles Fort was the first person who named strange disappearances and appearances of anomalies.[3]

    Gomez Perez Dasmarinas y Ribadeneira

    Gomez Perez Dasmarinas y Ribadeneira was the 7th Governor and Captain-General of the Philippines from June 1, 1590 to October 25, 1593.[4]

    He organized a secret expedition to the Moluccas to capture the fort at Terrenate. Before he sailed, he sent first his son Luis Perez Dasmarinas on ahead with part of the fleet to the province of Pintado. The governor left Philippines in charge of Diego Ronquillo and Pedro de Rojas. Gomez sailed together with fourty Spaniards, and the Chinese rowers, who according to Antonio de Morga were unchained to win their good will. However, on the second day of the expedition, when they reached the island of Caca, where they anchored for the night and planned rounding the Punta del Acufre on the next day, the guards and the sleeping Spaniards were attacked by the Chinese rowers after the last watch at dawn. Governor Gomez Perez Dasmarinas was killed by the Chinese rowers waiting outside his cabin.[3]

    The rebels then rowed to China in the galley. As they reached Cochin, China, their king confiscated two cannons and the valuable items. Some of the rebels were capture in Malacca and brought back to Manila where they faced punishment.

    Palacio del Gobernador

    The Palacio del Gobernador was the first residence of the Spanish Governor General from 1645 till 1863, when an earthquake brought it down, before transfering to Malacanang Palace.

    Filipino Guardia Civil

    Guardia Civil (or Civil Guards) was a local gendarmerie police force organized under the Spanish colonial government. It was formed in 1868 and was disbanded after the Spanish-American War in 1898 and replaced by Philippine Constabulary.[5]


    One of our readers made me curious to the real life of Gil Perez. That's the reason why I updated this article. (S)He commented that there's a problem on the story I found and there were errors introduced on it. So I enumerated the facts of the case (see above). (S)He is correct indeed, there were wrong information in the story.

    First of all, there's no guardia civil in late 16th century. They were created in 1868. Perhaps, the author mistakenly thought that the palace guards in that time were also called guardia civils. Therefore, Gil Perez is a palace guard in Palacio del Gobernador.

    The said date, October 24, 1593, is doubtful also. It is true that Governor Gomez Perez Dasmarinas was killed by Chinese rebel, but not on 24th of October but instead 25th. (I don't know who among the two - the author or wikipedia.com, tells the truth.) Aside of that, as Gil Perez was defending himself in front of the Mexican officials, he said that he received orders on the morning of 23th of October, evidencing that the strange incident occured in 24th. Okay, let's just assume that the incident occured instead in 25th to avoid the confusion.

    I would like to reconstruct the story according to my understanding.

    On October 25, 1593, Gil Perez was on his duty of guarding the Palacio del Gobernador (Governor's Palace) in the Philippines. As he was doing his job, he felt faint and decided to lean against the wall, and closed his eyes to relax his body. However, when he opened his eyes a second later, he noticed his surrounding changed. The Spanish guard was terrified upon realizing that he was no longer in the place were he was supposed to be. He had no idea where actually he was or how he got there. The place where he appeared suddenly was in Plaza Mayor of Mexico City.

    It was explained to him by Mexican officials that he was now in Mexico City. At first, Perez refused to believe it saying that he had received his orders on the morning of October 24 in Manila, making it impossible to him to be in Mexico City, which is thousand miles away from Manila City. (Of course, there's no airplane that time, so it is really impossible for them to travel and arrive in an instant.) He also told the officials that Governor Gomez Perez Dasmarinas was killed in the same day at morning.

    The authorities put him in jail accusing him being a deserter of the Philippine guards, and for the possibility that he may have been in the service of Satan.

    When he was questioned by The Most Holy Tribunal of the Inquisition for witchcraft, his answer was constant, that he travelled from Manila to Mexico in all of a sudden, as if in less time than it takes a cock to crow.

    After two months, a news coming from the Philippines, arrived through Manila Galleon, saved him. It was confirmed that the Governor was really killed by the Chinese rowers mutiny. There were also witnesses that they really saw Gil Perez on duty in the Philippines before appearing in Mexico City. One of the passengers of the galleon ship recognized and swore that he indeed seen him. Eventually, he returned home, then assumed his real position as a palace guard, never knowing the reason how he got there.

    According to one of our readers, there is a document that can attest the genuineness of the Gil Perez's story. It can be found in the Archives in Sevilla and Mexico City.

    Whether this is just an urban legend or a fact, however this really made a question to everyone. Well, urban legends somehow came from reality before it was morphed.

    If you know any information concerning Gil Perez's case, or found any error on the story in this article, just e-mail us or send us a message to our facebook page. It will be a very big help not only to me, but to our readers as well. Thank you.

    Last Updated: February 09, 2014

    [1] http://cogitz.com/2009/09/09/the-mysterious-case-of-gil-perez/
    [2] Encarta ® World English Dictionary © & (P) 1998-2005 Microsoft Corporation.
    [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleportation
    [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomez_Perez_Dasmarinas
    [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Guard_(Philippines)

    Image source:

    You may also visit:

    The First European
    The Yamashita Treasure
    Code of Kalantiaw

    Sunday, July 8, 2012

    Top 10 Reasons Why There Won't Be a Filipino US President

    [Taken from Internet:]


    I don't know if you've heard or watched David Letterman's Show when he used Filipino- American for his top ten reasons, but this certainly shows we are an emerging group in this diverse society to be featured in Dave's famous TV show..

    Happy reading to all!!!


    Filipinos are certainly getting into mainstream America and into the world. With an estimated 4 million Filipino-American population (as of 2007), Filipinos are an emerging group in a diverse society in the United States .

    Filipino talents like Manny Pacquiao, Charice Pempengco, Arnel Pineda, Lea Salonga, and Monique Lhuillier are doing a great job pitching in!

    David Letterman, apparently used Filipino-Americans in one of his skits.

    Here’s the recap:

    Top 10 Reasons Why There Couldn’t Be a Filipino-American US President
    By David Letterman

    10. The White House is not big enough for in-laws and extended relatives.

    9. There are not enough parking spaces at the White House for 2 Honda Civics, 2 Toyota Land Cruisers, 3 Toyota Corollas, a Mercedes Benz, a BMW , and an MPV (My Pinoy Van).

    8. Dignitaries generally are intimidated by eating with their fingers at State dinners.

    7. There are too many dining rooms in the White House – where will they put the picture of the Last Supper?

    6. The White House walls are not big enough to hold a pair of giant wooden spoon and fork.

    5. Secret Service staff won’t respond to “psst… psst” or “hoy.hoyhoy!”

    4. Secret Service staff will not be comfortable driving the presidential car with a Holy Rosary hanging on the rear view mirror, or the statue of the Santo Nino on the dashboard.

    3. No budget allocation to purchase a Karaoke music-machine for every room in the White House.

    2. State dinners do not allow “Take Home”.


    1. Air Force One does not allow overweight Balikbayan boxes!


    David Lettermen is an American television host and comedian. He hosts the late night television talk show, Late Show with David Letterman, broadcast on CBS. Letterman has been a fixture on late night television since the 1982 debut of Late Night with David Letterman on NBC. Letterman recently surpassed friend and mentor Johnny Carson for having the longest late-night hosting career in the United States of America.

    One of his episodes, according to some rumors, he featured the Top 10 Reasons Why There Won't Be a Filipino U.S. President. This circulated among Fil-Ams and Filipinos in America. But some speculated that this one is not real. They said, it was created by a Filipino citizen residing in America.

    [Picture from:]http://www.cbs.com/late_night/late_show/bio/david_letterman/bio.php

    Saturday, July 7, 2012

    Code of Kalantiaw

    This is actually not an urban legend. This is a hoax, just like The Coming of Borneans to Panay I had posted here.


    The Code of Kalantiaw was a legendary legal code in the epic story Maragtas. It is said to have been written in 1433 by Datu Kalantiaw, a chief on the island of Negros in the Philippines. It was actually written in 1913 by Jose E. Marco as a part of his historical fiction Las antiguas leyendas de la Isla de Negros (Spanish, "The Ancient Legends of the Island of Negros"), which he attributed to a priest named Jose Maria Pavon.

    In 1917, the historian Josué Soncuya wrote about the Code of Kalantiaw in his book Historia Prehispana de Filipinas ("Prehispanic History of the Philippines") where he moved the location of the Code's origin from Negros to the Panay province of Aklan because he suspected that it may be related to the Ati-atihan festival. Other authors throughout the 20th century gave credence to the story and the code.

    In 1965, then University of Santo Tomas doctoral candidate William Henry Scott began an examination of prehispanic sources for the study of Philippine history. Scott eventually demonstrated that the code was a forgery committed by Marco. When Scott presented these conclusions in his doctoral dissertation, defended on 16 June 1968 before a panel of eminent Filipino historians which included Teodoro Agoncillo, Horacio de la Costa, Marcelino Foronda, Meceredes Grau Santamaria, Nicolas Zafra and Gregorio Zaide, not a single question was raised about the chapter which he had called The Contributions of Jose E. Marco to Philippine historiography. Scott later published his findings debunking the code in his book Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Filipino historians later removed the code from future literature regarding Philippine history. When Antonio W. Molina published a Spanish version of his The Philippines Through the Centuries as historia de Filipinas (Madrid, 1984), he replaced the Code with one sentence: "La tésis doctoral del historador Scott desbarate la existencia misma de dicho Código" (The doctoral dissertation of the historian Scott demolishes the very existence of the Code).

    Philippine historian Teodoro Agoncillo describes the Code as "a disputed document". Some history texts continue to present it as historical fact. Struggle for Freedom (subtitled A textbook on Philippine History) says, "Reproduced herein is the entire Code of Kalantiaw for your critical examination and for you to decide on its veracity and accuracy."

    The story is still believed by people in the central provinces. Some maintain the opinion that this is due to mis-education. But taking into consideration that after the Spanish colonization, local literary achievements in culture and government in the former territories of the Confederation of Madya-as were eclipsed by the emphasis of the Spanish colonial regime on Catholic Christian faith, and the fact that Ilonggo litearary heritage was primarily orally passed from one generation to another, as in the case of the oldest and longest epic in Hiligaynon Hinilawod that survive in the Sulod society in the hinterlands of Panay, the local beliefs inherited by the Ilonggos from their ancestors cannot be just be hastily dismissed as fabricated. In fact, Maragtas and the Code of Kalantiaw are something that serious historians have to study more carefully. What Walter Scott failed to consider in his jusgement is the nature of the transmission of Ilonggo local literature. He just limited himself with evaluating a relatively recent attempt to into writing what Ilonggos have bequeathed to their descendants through generations by means of oral tradition.

    Laws of the Code of Kalantiaw:

    [Taken from Internet:]

    Article I
    You shall not kill, neither shall you steal, neither shall you do harm to the aged, lest you incur the danger of death. All those who infringe this order shall be condemned to death by being drowned in the river, or in boiling water.

    Article II
    You shall obey. Let all your debts with the headman be met punctually. He who does not obey shall receive for the first time one hundred lashes. If the debt is large, he shall be condemned to thrust his hand in boiling water thrice. For the second time, he shall be beaten to death.

    Article III
    Obey you: let no one have women that are very young nor more than he can support; nor be given to excessive lust. He who does not comply with, obey, and observe this order shall be condemned to swim for three hours for the first time and for the second time, to be beaten to death with sharp thorns.

    Article IV
    Observe and obey; let no one disturb the quiet of the graves. When passing by the caves and trees where they are, give respect to them. He who does not observe this shall be killed by ants, or beaten to death with thorns.

    Article V
    You shall obey; he who exchanges for food, let it be always done in accordance with his word. He who does not comply, shall be beaten for one hour, he who repeats the offense shall be exposed for one day among ants.

    Article VI
    You shall be obliged to revere sights that are held in respect, such as those of trees of recognized worth and other sights. He who fails to comply shall pay with one month's work in gold or in honey.

    Article VII
    These shall be put to death; he who kills trees of venerable appearance; who shoot arrows at night at old men and women; he who enters the houses of the headmen without permission; he who kills a shark or a streaked cayman.

    Article VIII
    Slavery for a doam (a certain period of time) shall be suffered by those who steal away the women of the headmen; by him who keep ill-tempered dogs that bite the headmen; by him who burns the fields of another.

    Article IX
    All these shall be beaten for two days: who sing while traveling by night; kill the Manaul; tear the documents belonging to the headmen; are malicious liars; or who mock the dead.

    Article X
    It is decreed an obligation; that every mother teach secretly to her daughters matters pertaining to lust and prepare them for womanhood; let not men be cruel nor punish their women when they catch them in the act of adultery. Whoever shall disobey shall be killed by being cut to pieces and thrown to the caymans.

    Article XI
    These shall be burned: who by their strength or cunning have mocked at and escaped punishment or who have killed young boys; or try to steal away the women of the elders.

    Article XII
    These shall be drowned: all who interfere with their superiors, or their owners or masters; all those who abuse themselves through their lust; those who destroy their anitos (religious icons) by breaking them or throwing them down.

    Article XIII
    All these shall be exposed to ants for half a day: who kill black cats during a new moon; or steal anything from the chiefs or agorangs, however small the object may be.

    Article XIV
    These shall be made slave for life: who have beautiful daughters and deny them to the sons of chiefs, and with bad faith hide them away.

    Article XV
    Concerning beliefs and traditions; these shall be beaten: who eat the diseased flesh of beasts which they hold in respect, or the herb which they consider good, who wound or kill the young of the Manaul, or the white monkey.

    Article XVI
    The fingers shall be cut-off: of all those who break anitos of wood and clay in their alangans and temples; of those who destroy the daggers of the catalonans(priest/priestess), or break the drinking jars of the latter.

    Article XVII
    These shall be killed: who profane sites where anitos are kept, and sites where are buried the sacred things of their diwatas and headmen. He who performs his necessities in those places shall be burned.

    Article XVIII
    Those who do not cause these rules to be obeyed: if they are headmen, they shall be put to death by being stoned and crushed; and if they are agorangs they shall be placed in rivers to be eaten by sharks and caymans.

    Kalantiaw The Hoax

    The story of Datu Kalantiaw is often mistaken to be part of the epic of ten intrepid chiefs who founded Visayan civilization as much as 800 years ago, as told in an ancient and mysterious document called the Maragtas. This document, however, was an ordinary book written in 1907 by Pedro Monteclaro in which he compiled the local legends of the Visayas from mainly oral traditions and a few written documents that were fairly modern in their origins. Monteclaro never mentioned a chief by the name of Kalantiaw in his Maragtas. (See: The Maragtas Legend.)

    Some of the Maragtas legends are a part of Visayan folklore and they are a source of fierce pride for many Visayans today. The stories of the ten datus or chiefs might have been told for generations and they are perfectly believable, as far as legends go, if we put aside the modern additions such as obviously phoney "original" manuscripts and the use of precise but utterly uncorroborated dates from the pre-colonial era.

    After all, it is not hard to believe that exiles could have sailed from Borneo to settle in Panay. Why not? Even though there are no ancient documents to show that Chief Sumakwel and his followers actually existed, there is much archaeological and foreign documentary evidence of regular trade and travel at that time between the Philippines and its neighbours.

    But while Monteclaro's misguided nationalism, combined with the blatant dishonesty of other writers who embellished his work, blurred the line between legends and hard historical facts, the story of Kalantiaw is more alarming because he was never a part of the Philippines' history or even its oral traditions. Kalantiaw was an utter hoax from the beginning.

    We should not believe on it

    So, why should we not believe this story that has been taught as history for so many years in Filipino schools?

    There are three good reasons:

    1. The first reason is the lack of historical evidence. There are simply no written or pictorial documents from that time in Philippine history. There are no documents from other countries that mention the great Kalantiaw either. There is also no evidence that Philippine culture ever spawned such a barbaric set of laws. The early Spanish accounts tell us that Filipino custom at that time allowed even the most serious lawbreakers to pay a fine or to be placed into servitude for a time in cases of debt. As the missionary Francisco Colín wrote in 1663:
    In the punishment of crimes of violence the social rank of the slayer and slain made a great deal of difference. If the slain was a chief, all his kinsfolk took the warpath against the slayer and his kinfolk, and this state of war continued until arbiters were able to determine the amount of gold which had to be paid for the killing… The death penalty was not imposed by public authority save in cases where both the slayer and slain were commoners, and the slayer could not pay the blood price. K1
    Arbitration is still the custom of those Philippine cultures that were never conquered by the Spaniards.

    2. The second reason is the lack of evidence for Kalantiaw even as a legend of oral history. Many ardent admirers of the Datu, who disdain all historical evidence to the contrary, claim that he has long been a part of Visayan culture and heritage. This is simply not true. In almost 400 years of documented Philippine history – from Magellan's arrival in 1521 until the second decade of the 20th century – no such legend was ever recorded. Kalantiaw even escaped the attention of Pedro Monteclaro when he published the Maragtas legends in 1907. This is very suspicious considering that there are more stories today about Kalantiaw than there are about any of the ten datus of the Maragtas.

    Did the Spaniards suppress the legend of Kalantiaw?
    This accusation is usually the first thing that history buffs reach for when they need to explain a gap in Philippine history. If the Spaniards were aware of such a legend they had no reason to suppress it because those Spaniards who were sympathetic to the Filipinos could have presented the mere existence of the Code as proof that their ancestors were civilized – just as many Filipinos do today – while detractors could have pointed to the maniacal Datu himself as proof of their savagery – even though his methods of torture were no more sadistic than those of the Spanish Inquisition.
    It is certain that there were no legends of Kalantiaw before the 20th century. The Aklanon historian Digno Alba was a young man at the start of that century. He looked for Kalantiaw in local folklore in the 1950s but did not find him.
    On May 5, 1967 the historian William H. Scott wrote to Alba and asked him:

    When you were a child, Don Digno, did not the old folks of Aklan have stories about Kalantiaw even before the discovery of the Pavón documents in 1913? Were there no popular legends or folklore that the elders told their grandchildren?
    To which Alba replied in a letter from Kalibo, Aklan dated May 15, 1967:
    I had tried to get stories or legends from the present generations of Aklanons living in Batan… but not one old man can tell me now.

    3. The third and most important reason to reject the Kalantiaw myth is its source. If Kalantiaw was not a historical figure or a legendary character, where did he come from? Many writers on this subject didn't bother to mention where they obtained their information. Some, like Digno Alba, simply created "facts" from thin air. Scott eventually traced the ultimate origin of Kalantiaw back to a single person, José E. Marco of Pontevedra, Negros Occidental, who definitely did not live in the 1400s. In 1913, Marco claimed to have discovered the Pavón documents that were mentioned in Scott's letter to Digno Alba. These documents, which contain the Code of Kalantiaw, were in fact Marco's own creation. Kalantiaw eventually became the most successful of many hoaxes in Marco's career of almost 50 years as a forger and fraud. (For more about the life of Jose Marco see Jose Marco: Con man of the century)